3Rs and related concepts

3Rs and related concepts

ALTWEB – a ‘clearing house’ for alternatives to animal testing, home to journal ALTEX.

Canadian Council on Animal Care 3Rs microsite - links to multiple resources

ECVAM database service (DB-ALM) - database of papers addressing alternative to animal use/models.

FRAME – an independent charity promoting alternatives to animal testing. Has an excellent set of links to other resources, including practical alternatives to animal use in a number of disciplines.

Humane learning – provides guidance to some free online alternatives to animal use, cost comparisons of animal use vs non animal models and background information on conscientious objection. The latter includes foundational material.

Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) – Publishes ILAR journal.

Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) – USA government permanent committee that explores methods of validating and improving toxicological testing methods. This includes alternatives to animal use.

International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) – some links to training and education resources.

INTERNICHE ALTERNATIVES – includes exhaustive list of teaching alternatives to live animals, including software and hard models.

Introducing the three Rs into secondary school, universities and continuing education programmes, and some 3R resources.

Johns Hopkins University Centre for Alternative to Animal Testing (CAAT)– includes an exhaustive list of links to international 3Rs resources.

National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) – probably the most exhaustive site addressing the 3Rs. Includes links to many resources including techniques, alternatives to using live animals and emerging technologies.

Norecopa – Norwegian resource site. Not especially user friendly but has some excellent resources and links.

Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) – resources page of USA government body. Tends to be focussed on USA laws, guidelines etc but has some good links to other resources.

The 3Ssthe principles of ‘Good Science, Good Sense and Good Sensibilities’ explored in a short essay. Animals 20166(11), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani6110070

University of California Davis compliance with 3Rs – suggestions for the best methods of ensuring a valid, thorough and transparent application of the principles of the 3Rs in research and teaching