Keratin Fibres to Synthetic Graphite


Natural graphite is a resource that has a finite and geographically restricted supply. Graphite’s material characteristics, particularly its acoustics, thermal, and electrical conductivity properties, make it an ideal material for use in batteries for energy storage.

With the increase of electrification of homes and vehicles, battery demand and the need for graphite will substantially increase. A sustainably produced form of synthetic graphite from renewable materials that is also low-cost to produce would be ideal.

Our solution

Graphite and MWCNTsNovel chemical reactor design with shock wave technology to convert human hair (and potentially wool) into graphite at low temperatures.

The one-step process has so far been shown to produce battery-grade graphite from human hair. The same reactor is also capable of producing graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs).


  1. Cost of manufacturing: Keratin fibre, for example, human hair is a cost-effective raw material that feeds into a synthetic process, which is single-step and relatively low energy intensive and mostly automated, therefore decreasing labour and production costs and increasing efficiency.
  2. Raw material supply: Locally sourced and readily available renewable biomaterials which are independent of disruptions in the global supply chain.
  3. Easily scalable: The scaleup involves multiple, patentable small modular reactors running in parallel on demand.
  4. Multiple high-value products: A predictable and controlled mixture of graphite, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and other dopants like silicon can be manufactured as required.


Dr Amandeep Singh

Recent publications

Sustainable Manufacturing of Graphitic Carbon from Bio- Waste Using Flash Heating for Anode Material of Lithium-Ion Batteries with Optimal Performance.